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European History

Significant events in European history include the Roman settlements, the Viking Explorations, the Renaissance, the Reformations, the Age of Enlightenment and the French and Industrial Revolutions. Europe's story includes states, monarchies and revolutions. Its wars range from the Thirty Years' War to the Cold War to the War on Terror. European History is filled with fascinating people including Pliny the Younger, Leif Ericson, and Marquis de Pombal.. Explore their stories and worlds with us.

World War I: The Malaria Effect

Malaria took a heavy toll on soldiers during World War I. It helped induce a change in British military planning and operations. World War...

Operation Sealion – History of the Second World War

Opeartion Sealion was the name given to the planned Nazi invasion of Britain in 1940. The German Army enjoyed great success in the beginning...

Popular Conceptions of Witchcraft in Scotland

Conceptions of witchcraft led to a number of persecutions of witches in pre-modern Scotland. This article examines the popular view in Scotland. The popular...

Berwick Bridge: How to Build a Stone Bridge

Part three describes methods that James Burrell would need to build his stone bridge, and the seasonal building constraints he would need to...

Berwick Bridge: Raising the Money

The second of five articles on the building of Berwick Bridge covers the town's attempts to raise the required capital Hopes of building a...

The Voynich Manuscript

The Voynich Manuscript is a mysterious written work completed in a language or code that has been unidentifiable for hundreds of years. Like something...

The Allied D-Day Invasion Of Normandy

The Normandy Landing was the third major invasion operation crossing the English Channel in the last 900 years. William the Conqueror led the first...

Violet Jessop – Titanic Survivor

Violet Jessop survived the sinking of The Titanic in 1912. She also survived the sinking in 1916 of its sister ship, Britannic. Violet Jessop was...

Short History of Romanticism In France and Germany

Romanticism was influenced by writers, musicians, artists, and philosophers throughout Germany and France; focusing on "individual liberties" and unity. Romanticisms beginnings are questionable. According...

Theodor Herzl Promotes a Jewish Homeland in Palestine

Theodor Herzl envisioned a Jewish homeland in Palestine when it became apparent that Europe still clung to Antisemitism in the modern world. Israel became...

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The Parthenon

When you think of Greece, you think of the Parthenon. It remains today the ideal of Classical architecture and artistic design. The Parthenon stands today...

Wars of the Successors

Alexander the Great died suddenly in 323 BCE without leaving an heir. What he did leave was a group of wildly ambitious generals who...

The Unmovable Spartans

The Spartans were the powerful inhabitants of the southern Peloponnesus, a large peninsula in Southern Greece. Their power and prominence was most notable from...